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Decentralized Network – Offers a wide range of benefits over the more conventional centralized network, including increased system reliability, scale, and privacy.


Network Consensus - A decentralized coordinating process to reach consensus or to autonomously agree on or verify some data value that is needed during computation.


Overlay Network - Nodes in the overlay network can be thought of as being connected by virtual or logical links, each of which corresponds to a path, perhaps through many physical links, in the underlying network. Distributed systems such as peer-to-peer and mesh networks are overlay networks because their nodes run on top of the Internet.


Blockchain - A growing list of records, called blocks, that are linked using cryptography; therefore, data in a blockchain is immutable. Each block contains a cryptographic hash of the previous block, a timestamp, and transaction data. By design, a blockchain is resistant to modification of its data. This is because once recorded, the data in any given block cannot be altered retroactively without the alteration of all subsequent blocks.


IoE, Internet of Everything – A broad term that refers to devices and consumer products connected to the internet and outfitted with expanded digital features. It is a philosophy in which technology's future is comprised of many different types of appliances, devices, and items connected to the global internet.


IoT, Internet of Things - refers to a system of interrelated, internet-connected objects that can collect and transfer data over a wireless network without human intervention.


IoMT, Internet of Medical Things - an amalgamation of medical devices and applications that can connect to health care information technology systems using networking technologies.


Edge Computing - Computing that takes place at the edge of corporate networks, with “the edge” being defined as the place where end devices access the rest of the network – things like phones, laptops, industrial robots, and sensors.


Autonomous Things - These devices include robotics, vehicles, drones, autonomous smart home devices, and autonomous software. Autonomous Things is about enhancing machines with sensors, AI, and analytical capabilities so that machines make data-based decisions and autonomously complete tasks.


AI, Artificial Intelligence - Refers to any human-like intelligence exhibited by a computer, robot, or other machines. In popular usage, artificial intelligence refers to the ability of a computer or machine to mimic the capabilities of the human mind—learning from examples and experience, recognizing objects, understanding, and responding to language, making decisions, solving problems—and combining these and other capabilities to perform functions a human might perform, such as greeting a hotel guest or driving a car.


Data Movement – The movement of data from one place, called the source operand, to another place, called the destination operand. Move instructions move data from one register to another.


Data Monitoring - A business practice in which critical business data is routinely checked against quality control rules to make sure it is always of high quality and meets previously established standards for formatting and consistency.


Data Mining – A process of extracting and discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems.


Data Verification - Real-time consistency is an important property of any trustless system. By verifying data checksums over a blockchain, data can be verified from source to use and thereby trusted even if a relaying source is not trusted.


Computer Network - A group of computers that use a set of common communication protocols over digital interconnections for the purpose of sharing resources located on or provided by the network nodes. ... They are identified by hostnames and network addresses.


Platform - A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system (OS), even a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it.


Node - A node is a connection point inside a network that can receive, send, create, or store data. Each node requires you to provide some form of identification to receive access, like an IP address.


Internet-Scale - Internet Scale Applications offers analytics for enterprises serving millions of users, handling billions of transactions, and storing trillions of records in real-time.


Quantum Computing - An area of computing focused on developing computer technology based on the principles of quantum theory, which explains the behavior of energy and material on the atomic and subatomic levels. ... Quantum computing, on the other hand, uses quantum bits or qubits.


Quantum Tunnel - Tunneling is a quantum mechanical phenomenon when a particle is able to penetrate through a potential energy barrier that is higher in energy than the particle's kinetic energy.


Quantum-Safe - Post-quantum cryptography (sometimes referred to as quantum-proof, quantum-safe or quantum-resistant) refers to cryptographic algorithms (usually public-key algorithms) that are thought to be secure against a cryptanalytic attack by a quantum computer. 


Post Quantum - Refers to cryptographic algorithms (usually public-key algorithms) that are thought to be secure against an attack by a quantum computer. As of 2020, this is not true for the used public-key algorithms, which can be efficiently broken by a sufficiently strong quantum computer.


Polymorphic Encryption - In most forms of encryption, the method or algorithm remains the same each time it is used, you encrypt then decrypt, and a key provides variation and uniqueness. In polymorphic encryption, the algorithm, the encryption/decryption pair, changes each time it is used.


Malware - “Malware” is short for “malicious software” - computer programs designed to infiltrate and damage computers without the users' consent. “Malware” is the general term covering all the different types of threats to your computer safety such as viruses, spyware, worms, trojans, rootkits, and so on.


Malware Safe – Safe from Malware.


VPN, Virtual Private Network - A virtual private network, or VPN, is an encrypted connection over the Internet from a device to a network. The encrypted connection helps ensure that sensitive data is safely transmitted. It prevents unauthorized people from eavesdropping on the traffic and allows the user to conduct work remotely.


SDN, Software Defined Network - A network architectural model that allows programmatic management, control, and optimization of network resources.


SaaS, Software as a Service - A way of delivering applications over the Internet—as a service. Instead of installing and maintaining software, you simply access it via the Internet, freeing yourself from complex software and hardware management.


Unicorn - A term used in the venture capital industry to describe a privately held startup company with a value of over $1 billion.


IP, Internet Protocol - The principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries. Its routing function enables internetworking and essentially establishes the Internet.


P2P, Peer to Peer Network - A distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers. Peers are equally privileged, equipotent participants in the application. They are said to form a peer-to-peer network of nodes.

Intelligent Mesh Network – A network topology in which the nodes connect directly, dynamically, and non-hierarchically to a controlled set of other nodes and cooperate to efficiently route data from/to clients. This lack of dependency on one node allows for every node to participate in the relay of information. Mesh networks dynamically self-organize and self-configure, which can reduce installation overhead. The ability to self-configure enables the dynamic distribution of workloads, particularly if some nodes should fail.


Ethernet - A family of computer networking technologies, The Internet Protocol is commonly carried over Ethernet and so it is considered one of the key technologies that make up the Internet.


TCP, Transmission Control Protocol - One of the main protocols of the Internet protocol suite, TCP provides reliable, ordered, and error-checked delivery of a stream of octets (bytes) between applications running on hosts communicating via an IP network.


MTU, Maximum Transmission Unit - The size of the largest protocol data unit (PDU) that can be communicated in a single network-layer transaction.


WiFi - A family of wireless network protocols, based on the IEEE 802.11 family of standards, which are commonly used for local area networking of devices and Internet access.


Cellular - A communication network where the last link is wireless (3G, 4G, 5G). The network is distributed over land areas called "cells", each served by at least one fixed-location transceiver, but more normally, three cell sites or base transceiver stations.


QoS, Quality of Service - The description or measurement of the overall performance of a service, such as a telephony or a computer network or a cloud computing service, particularly the performance seen by the users of the network. To quantitatively measure the quality of service, several related aspects of the network service are often considered, such as packet loss, bit rate, throughput, transmission delay, availability.


Trust Levels - A QoS rating that at its highest level indicates a “global” high QoS of the node so it can be trusted to relay data at a global scale and nodes at its lowest level can only be trusted to relay data at a “local” scale e.g., to it closest “neighbors”.


Net Shaping – A network topography process that uses Trust levels and learning machines to dynamically optimize a P2P network for a specific mission.


Cyber Extortion - Cyber extortion is an Internet crime in which hackers hold your computer system, infrastructure, data, or other sensitive information hostage until you meet their demands for payment. It often takes the form of ransomware and distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, both of which could paralyze your installations or business.

RansomWare - Involves a cyber-extortionist tricking an employee or user into clicking on a link or file within a message. This activates the ransomware, which spreads throughout your network, encrypting your servers and data so you can’t access applications and files.
The only way to restore access is to pay the hacker for a de-encryption key.


Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) - So-called distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks involve hackers using a network of infected computers to send an overwhelming flood of messages to your service, which effectively takes it out of service until you pay the cyber-extortionist to stop messaging.

Critical Systems - There are four types of critical systems: safety-critical, mission-critical, business-critical, and security-critical. Massive IoT deployments such as Smart Cities embrace all four of these.

Real-Time - Describes various operations in computing or other processes that must guarantee response times within a specified time (deadline), usually a relatively short time. A real-time process is generally one that happens in defined time steps of maximum duration and fast enough to affect the environment in which it occurs, such as inputs to a computing system. All IoT solutions are or need to be Real-time.


Data Streams - A data stream is a sequence of data elements made available over time. A data stream can be thought of as items on a conveyor belt being processed one at a time rather than in large batches. Streams are processed differently from batch data – normal functions cannot operate on streams as a whole, as they have potentially unlimited data, and formally, streams are codata (potentially unlimited), not data (which is finite).

Routing Congestion - Network congestion in data networking and queueing theory is the reduced quality of service that occurs when a network node or link is carrying more data than it can handle. Typical effects include queueing delay, packet loss, or the blocking of new connections.

Data Lake - A data lake is a system or repository of data stored in its natural/raw format, usually object blobs or files. A data lake is usually a single store of data including raw copies of source system data, sensor data, social data.

Information Lake - An Information data lake is similar to a data lake but is a system or repository of information (processed data) stored in formatted object blobs or files. An information lake is usually a single store of data including system data, sensor data, social data.

Public Key / Private Key Solution - A cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: public keys (which may be known to others), and private keys (which may never be known by any except the owner). The generation of such key pairs depends on cryptographic algorithms which are based on mathematical problems termed one-way functions. Effective security requires keeping the private key private; the public key can be openly distributed without compromising security.

Centralized - A centralized network architecture is built around a single server that handles all the major processing. Clients connect to the server and submit their requests to the central server rather than performing them directly. This includes DNS lookups, webpages, applications, data storage, and utilities.

Decentralized - A decentralized network offers a wide range of benefits over the more conventional centralized network, including increased system reliability, scale, and privacy. One of the most important benefits of decentralized network management is the fact that there is no real single point of failure—this is because individual users’ machines are not reliant on a single central server to handle all processes. Decentralized networks are also much easier to scale, as you can simply add more machines to the network to add more compute power. In addition to this, a decentralized network architecture allows for greater privacy, as information is not passing through a single point and instead passes through several different points. This makes it much more difficult to track across a network.

Blockchain Consensus - Consensus algorithms are a decision-making process for a group, where individuals of the group construct and support the decision that works best for the rest of them. It’s a form of resolution where individuals need to support the majority decision, whether they liked it or not. In simple terms, it’s just a method to decide within a group. Let me clear it up with an example. Imagine a group of ten people that want to plan about a project that benefits them all. Every one of them can suggest an idea, but the majority will be in favor of the one that helps them the most. Others must deal with this decision whether they liked it or not.

Data Consistency - Real-time consistency is an important property of any trust-less system, by verifying data checksums over a blockchain, data can be verified from source to use and thereby trysted even if a relaying source not trusted.

Post-Quantum Security - Post-quantum cryptography (sometimes referred to as quantum-proof, quantum-safe or quantum-resistant) refers to cryptographic algorithms (usually public-key algorithms) that are thought to be secure against a cryptanalytic attack by a quantum computer. As of 2021, this is not true for the most popular public-key algorithms, which can be efficiently broken by a sufficiently strong quantum computer. The problem with currently popular algorithms is that their security relies on one of three hard mathematical problems: the integer factorization problem, the discrete logarithm problem, or the elliptic-curve discrete logarithm problem. All these problems can be easily solved on a sufficiently powerful quantum computer running Shor's algorithm.

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